Over the years, the idea of social insurance has been manipulated to fit a specific need, and as such, every civilized country to date has some sort of social insurance system in place, much like Social Security in the United States. However, some nations as of late are leaning toward a different sort of system where as opposed to only giving assistance to the needy for as long as they are in need, the system would pay everyone, at any income, for as long as they live. This is to be considered a Universal Basic Income, or UBI.
In an article written for the New York Times by Judith Shulevitz titled “It’s Payback Time for Women”, the benefits of implementing such a system in the United States are discussed. Some of those benefits include allowing parents (a majority of which are and would be women) to be “stay-at-home” parents without losing their entire income to do so. In another sense, the UBI could improve the motivation for welfare recipients to find work, whether part or full time, due to the idea that under a UBI, any income earned would be added to what is received through the UBI, whereas with welfare, a “dollar earned is a dollar cut from a welfare check” (Shulevitz, 4). Unfortunately, however, there seems to be some miscalculation within Shulevitz’s piece.
In an estimation of the price tag on a national UBI, Shulevitz stated that at a rate of $12,000 annually to all adults 18 and older and $4,000 per child under 18, the United States would need to spend roughly $3 trillion a year on the UBI. That makes up roughly 80% of the US Federal Budget. This huge chunk of change is said to be offset by the elimination of many of the government assistance programs that would no longer be necessary under the UBI. Unfortunately, this would simply not be enough for those currently using public assistance programs, meaning that many of the government programs could not be eliminated without adversely affecting a number of Americans, which seems fairly counterproductive given the intentions of the UBI.
In a situational analysis conducted by the Wisconsin Legislative Fiscal Bureau in 2014, a single mother with two children would be eligible to receive over $29,000 in government funded assistance on top of her $10,000 annual working salary. This $29,000 does not include any tax benefits (estimated at over $5,000) or potential student financial aid, should she be attending college (estimated at over $6,600). Under the UBI, this family of three would receive only $20,000, leaving over $9,000 left to be desired for basic needs and $11,600 in other benefits that could lead to a higher education. In order to compensate for this gap, many existing programs would continue to be necessary and more than the estimated $3 trillion would be needed, meaning more than 80% of the federal budget that already isn’t available would need to be spent in order to establish a working UBI.
Furthermore, not only would the US be unable to afford such a program in its current state, but it also elicits certain added problems that other government assistance programs have sought solutions to. For example, food stamps are given to needy families instead of cash in order to ensure that the money is being spent on food. In many instances, this may be unnecessary because the recipient can be expected to spend their assistance on needs, however, it is abundantly clear that not all those who receive government assistance are using it properly. This monthly stipend of cash under the UBI would leave children, forced to rely on erratic parents, without food from food stamps, shelter from housing assistance, or heat in the winter from energy assistance.
The concept of a Universal Basic Income, as introduced briefly by Shulevitz in her article, is pleasing. The benefits to stay at home parents, the elimination of some poorly run government programs, and advantage to the economy from higher spending are enticing. However, implementing such a program in a country as populated (and as debt plagued) as the United States seems rather implausible. The percentage of the federal budget that would be needed to keep the program afloat along with the inherent systematic abuse of the UBI leaves the country and its underprivileged children worse off than they already are.
For more information on the study from the WLFB, go to https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2014/12/05/grothman-single-parents-welfare/
To read Judith Shulevitz’s full article, go to http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/10/opinion/sunday/payback-time-for-women.html?_r=0